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Update on Mental Retardation
2017-05-08 13:40:51

Update on Mental Retardation

Yim, Shin Young


Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ajou University School of Medicine

Mental retardation is a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive
behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and adaptive skills, which originates before the age of 18. The prevalence
of mental retardation among elementary school children in Korea is estimated as 9∼12/1,000. In most cases of mental
retardation, the interplay of genetic and environmental influences remains poorly understood. However, recent advances
in molecular genetic techniques have enabled us to understand more about the molecular basis of several genetic
syndromes associated with mental retardation. This article presents a review of three common genetic conditions causing
mental retardation-Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, and Prader-Willi syndrome-with the summary of the effectiveness
of early intervention for the children with mental retardation.

Keywords Cognitive development, Mental retardation, Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome

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